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Rapport sur le commerce mondial 2021

Résilience économique et commerce

Description :

The COVID-19 pandemic and the prospect of increasingly frequent and more intense natural and man-made disasters raise important questions about the resilience of the global economy to such shocks. The World Trade Report 2021 explores the basic, binary assumption driving much of the current debate about economic resilience, namely the inherent trade-off between global trade interdependence and national economic security, and suggests that this can be a false dilemma.

Due to its interconnected nature, international trade can increase an economy’s exposure to risks and contribute to the transmission of shockwaves. At the same time, it can bolster economic resilience, particularly when backed by domestic policies and effective global cooperation. As a driver of economic growth, trade can generate the resources and knowledge needed to prepare for crises. It can also help countries recover by facilitating the provision of goods and services needed to cope with a crisis.

Policies aimed at increasing economic resilience by re-shoring production and unwinding trade integration ultimately reduce economic resilience. Conversely, trade diversification can contribute to economic resilience by allowing countries to be less dependent on a limited number of importers, exporters and sectors.

The World Trade Report 2021 shows that a more open, inclusive and predictable trade environment is needed to promote diversification and contribute to economic resilience. The WTO already plays a key role in making economies more resilient by promoting lower trade barriers and greater transparency in trade policies. Further international cooperation at the WTO can strengthen the mutual supportiveness of trade openness and economic resilience so that the world is better prepared to deal with future crises.

Published November 2021 | 520 pages | 297 x 210 mm | Weight 0.800 kg

CONTENTS

> Acknowledgements and disclaimer
> Abbreviations and symbols
> Foreword by the WTO Director-General
> Executive summary

A. Introduction
1. Vulnerability and resilience: two sides of the same globalization coin
2. More resilience requires more, not less, global economic cooperation

B. Why economic resilience matters
1. Introduction
2. Economies are exposed to risks and shocks
3. Disruptions and shocks can cause significant loss of life and severe economic impact
4. How do shocks impact international trade?
5. Economic and trade policy response to shocks
6. Building and supporting economic resilience has become a key strategy to reduce business interruptions and economic losses caused by shocks
7. Conclusion

C. The role of trade in economic resilience
1. Introduction
2. Trade can be a spreader of shocks
3. Trade can enable countries to better prepare for, cope with, and recover from shocks
4. The role of trade diversification in resilience
5. Conclusion

D. The role of international cooperation in building economic resilience
1. Introduction
2. Why does international cooperation matter for economic resilience and what forms does it take?
3. International cooperation on non-trade policies can help reduce risk and vulnerabilities and enhance resilience
4. International cooperation on trade policies can reduce risk and vulnerabilities
5. International cooperation on trade policies can help cope with shocks
6. International cooperation on trade policies can help recover after shocks
7. Conclusion

E. Conclusion

Opinion pieces

Stephane Hallegatte, “Beyond the aggregate: defining and measuring households’ resilience”
Ralph Ossa, “A simple measure of economic resilience”
Susan Lund, “How more resilient supply chains could reshape global trade”
Alison Gillwald, “Multiple economic resilience challenges for Africa in a rapidly digitalizing global economy”
Chad P. Bown, “Semiconductors and pandemic resilience”
Mami Mizutori, “The business case for trade, risk reduction and resilience”
Şebnem Kalemli-Özcan, “The economic case for global vaccinations”
Ellen ‘t Hoen, “Vaccine knowledge needs to be a global public good”
Patrick Gaulé, “Patents and the availability of essential goods in crises: the case of COVID-19 vaccines”

> Bibliography
> Technical notes
> List of figures, tables and boxes


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